E.g., 09/23/2014
E.g., 09/23/2014

State Workforce Data - VA

Virginia

Workforce
2012
2000
1990
Civilian Labor Force

Note: 1) Persons are considered to be in the civilian labor force if they were employed or if they were unemployed but actively looking for work. Persons not in the labor force include homemakers, retirees, students who do not work, and others who are neither working outside the home nor looking for work. Civilian labor force excludes members of the armed forces (Army, Navy, Air Force, Coast Guard, and Marines). 2) Civilian employed population includes anyone who reported performing full or part-time work during a reference week, being temporarily absent from a job, or performing unpaid work for a family business or farm. 3) Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, South Dakota, Vermont, and West Virginia are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2009-2011 American Community Survey (ACS), and data for North Dakota and Wyoming are from pooled 2007-2011 ACS. Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2012 ACS. 4) The letter N Indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.

Note: The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.

Foreign Born
Population (16 and older) 893,189
% in the civilian labor force 72.6%
Civilian labor force (age 16 and older) 648,455
% unemployed of the total civilian labor force 5.8%
Civilian Employed Workers (age 16 and older) 611,006
% change: 2000-2012 83.6%
% change: 1990-2000 74.5%

Note: The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.

U.S. Born
Population (16 and older) 5,648,150
% in the civilian labor force 63.5%
Civilian labor force (age 16 and older) 3,586,575
% unemployed of the total civilian labor force 7.2%
Civilian Employed Workers (age 16 and older) 3,327,812
% change: 2000-2011 8.1%
% change: 1990-2000 8.4%
Foreign Born
Population (16 and older) 523,188
% change: 2000-2011 66.2%
Civilian labor force (age 16 and older) 346,595
% change: 1990-2000 4.0%
Civilian Employed Workers (age 16 and older) 332,866
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (16 and older) 5,009,272
% change: 2000-2011 64.2%
Civilian labor force (age 16 and older) 3,216,117
% change: 1990-2000 4.3%
Civilian Employed Workers (age 16 and older) 3,077,840
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (16 and older) 283,389
% change: 2000-2011 70.6%
Civilian labor force (age 16 and older) 199,938
% change: 1990-2000 4.6%
Civilian Employed Workers (age 16 and older) 190,722
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (16 and older) 4,557,717
% change: 2000-2011 65.2%
Civilian labor force (age 16 and older) 2,972,493
% change: 1990-2000 4.5%
Civilian Employed Workers (age 16 and older) 2,839,560
   
   
Foreign-Born Labor Force by U.S. Citizenship Status

Note: 1) Persons are considered to be in the civilian labor force if they were employed or if they were unemployed but actively looking for work. Persons not in the labor force include homemakers, retirees, students who do not work, and others who are neither working outside the home nor looking for work. Civilian labor force excludes members of the armed forces (Army, Navy, Air Force, Coast Guard, and Marines). 2) Civilian employed population includes anyone who reported performing full or part-time work during a reference week, being temporarily absent from a job, or performing unpaid work for a family business or farm. 3) Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, South Dakota, Vermont, and West Virginia are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2009-2011 American Community Survey (ACS), and data for North Dakota and Wyoming are from pooled 2007-2011 ACS. Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2012 ACS. 4) The letter N Indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.

Foreign Born
Naturalized Citizens  
Population (16 and older) 436,950
% in the civilian labor force
73.0%
Civilian labor force (age 16 and older) 318,974
% unemployed of the total civilian labor force 4.3%
Civilian employed workers (age 16 and older) 305,204
Noncitizens  
Population (age 16 and older) 456,239
% in the civilian labor force
72.2%
Civilian labor force (age 16 and older) 329,405
% unemployed of the total civilian labor force
7.2%
Civilian employed workers (age 16 and older) 305,802
U.S. Born
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign-Born Workers by Period of Entry and Origin Foreign Born
Foreign-Born Civilian Employed Workers (age 16 and older) by Period of Entry

Note: The total estimate of foreign-born workers here is somewhat different from other Workforce data due to different ACS data sources.

580,571
% recent arrivals (i.e., arrived within the last 10 years)
39.6%
Foreign-Born Civilian Employed Workers (age 16 and older) by Region of Birth

Note: The total estimate of foreign-born workers here is somewhat different from other Workforce data due to different ACS data sources.

580,571
Born in Africa 10.6%
Born in Asia 39.1%
Born in Europe 8.9%
Born in Latin America (South America, Central America, Mexico, and the Caribbean) 40.0%
Born in Northern America (Canada, Bermuda, Greenland, and St. Pierre and Miquelon) 1.2%
Born in Oceania 0.2%
U.S. Born
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Occupations

Note: 1) Civilian employed population includes anyone who reported performing full or part-time work during a reference week, being temporarily absent from a job, or performing unpaid work for a family business or farm. 2) Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, South Dakota, Vermont, and West Virginia are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2009-2011 American Community Survey (ACS), and data for North Dakota and Wyoming are from pooled 2007-2011 ACS. Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2012 ACS. 3) The letter N Indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.

Foreign Born
Civilian Workers Age 16 and Older 611,006
% Civilian Workers Employed in  
Management, business, science, and arts occupations 36.5%
Service occupations 23.5%
Sales and office occupations 18.8%
Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations 11.7%
Production, transportation, and material moving occupations 9.5%
% Foreign Born by Occupation  
All civilian workers 15.5%
Management, business, science, and arts occupations 13.5%
Service occupations 21.6%
Sales and office occupations 12.7%
Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations 21.4%
Production, transportation, and material moving occupations 15.4%
U.S. Born
Civilian Workers Age 16 and Older 3,327,812
% Civilian Workers Employed in  
Management, business, science, and arts occupations 42.9%
Service occupations 15.7%
Sales and office occupations 23.8%
Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations 7.9%
Production, transportation, and material moving occupations 9.6%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Industries

Note: 1) Civilian employed population includes anyone who reported performing full or part-time work during a reference week, being temporarily absent from a job, or performing unpaid work for a family business or farm. 2) Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, South Dakota, Vermont, and West Virginia are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2009-2011 American Community Survey (ACS), and data for North Dakota and Wyoming are from pooled 2007-2011 ACS. Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2012 ACS. 3) The letter N Indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.

Foreign Born
Civilian Workers Age 16 and Older 611,006
% Civilian Workers Employed in  
Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting, and mining 1.0%
Construction 10.4%
Manufacturing 4.7%
Wholesale trade 1.2%
Retail trade 11.1%
Transportation and warehousing, and utilities 4.3%
Information 2.2%
Finance and insurance, and real estate and rental and leasing 5.7%
Professional, scientific, management, administrative, and waste-management services 16.9%
Educational services, and health care and social assistance 16.9%
Arts, entertainment, recreation, accommodation, and food services 12.6%
Other services (except public administration) 7.5%
Public administration 5.6%
% Foreign Born by Industry  
All civilian workers 15.5%
Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting, and mining 15.5%
Construction 24.5%
Manufacturing 9.8%
Wholesale trade 10.4%
Retail trade 15.5%
Transportation and warehousing, and utilities 16.8%
Information 16.8%
Finance and insurance, and real estate and rental and leasing 13.9%
Professional, scientific, management, administrative, and waste-management services 17.6%
Educational services, and health care and social assistance 12.3%
Arts, entertainment, recreation, accommodation, and food services 22.0%
Other services (except public administration) 21.3%
Public administration 9.3%
U.S. Born
Civilian Workers Age 16 and Older 3,327,812
% Civilian Workers Employed in  
Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting, and mining 1.0%
Construction 5.9%
Manufacturing 7.9%
Wholesale trade 1.9%
Retail trade 11.1%
Transportation and warehousing, and utilities 3.9%
Information 2.0%
Finance and insurance, and real estate and rental and leasing 6.5%
Professional, scientific, management, administrative, and waste-management services 14.5%
Educational services, and health care and social assistance 22.2%
Arts, entertainment, recreation, accommodation, and food services 8.2%
Other services (except public administration) 5.1%
Public administration 10.0%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Class of Worker

Note: 1) Civilian employed population includes anyone who reported performing full or part-time work during a reference week, being temporarily absent from a job, or performing unpaid work for a family business or farm. 2) Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, South Dakota, Vermont, and West Virginia are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2009-2011 American Community Survey (ACS), and data for North Dakota and Wyoming are from pooled 2007-2011 ACS. Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2012 ACS. 3) The letter N Indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.

Foreign Born
Civilian Employed Workers (age 16 and older) (%) 611,006
Private wage and salary workers 80.0%
Government workers 12.8%
Self-employed workers in own not incorporated business 6.9%
Unpaid family workers 0.2%
U.S. Born
Class of Worker (civilian workers age 16 and older) (%) 3,327,812
Private wage and salary workers 73.1%
Government workers 21.9%
Self-employed workers in own not incorporated business 4.9%
Unpaid family workers 0.1%
 
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 25 and older)
 
 
Labor Force Participation by Language Spoken at Home Number
Total Population (native and foreign born) Age 25 and older 5,504,766
In labor force 3,746,976
Not in labor force 1,757,790
Speak only English 4,655,318
In labor force 3,097,156
Not in labor force 1,558,162
Speak Spanish 342,659
In labor force 278,737
Not in labor force 63,922
Speak other Indo-European languages 210,776
In labor force 152,993
Not in labor force 57,783
Speak Asian and Pacific Island languages 213,672
In labor force 155,188
Not in labor force 58,484
Speak other languages 82,341
In labor force 62,902
Not in labor force 19,439
%
Total Population (native and foreign born) age 25 and older 100%
  In labor force 68.1%
Not in labor force 31.9%
Speak only English 100%
  In labor force 66.5%
Not in labor force 33.5%
Speak Spanish 100%
  In labor force 81.3%
Not in labor force 18.7%
Speak other Indo-European languages 100%
  In labor force 72.6%
Not in labor force 27.4%
Speak Asian and Pacific Island languages 100%
  In labor force 72.6%
Not in labor force 27.4%
Speak other languages 100%
  In labor force 76.4%
Not in labor force 23.6%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Workers' Education and English Proficiency

Note: 1) Civilian employed population includes anyone who reported performing full or part-time work during a reference week, being temporarily absent from a job, or performing unpaid work for a family business or farm. 2) The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Foreign Born
Civilian Employed Workers (age 25 and older) 533,029
Low-educated workers (i.e., those with high school diploma) 92,946
% low educated of all workers
17.4%
High-educated workers (i.e., those with at least a bachelor's degree) 237,629
% high educated of all workers
44.6%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Workers (age 25 and older) 214,776
% LEP among all workers
40.3%
U.S. Born
Civilian Workers (age 25 and older) 2,867,121
Low-educated workers (i.e., those with high school diploma) 161,897
% low educated of all workers
5.6%
High-educated workers (i.e., those with at least a bachelor's degree) 1,183,518
% high educated of all workers
41.3%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Workers (age 25 and older) 12,926
% LEP among all workers
0.5%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Brain Waste

Note: The terms "brain waste" and "skill underutilization" are used interchangeably and describe a phenomenon when college-educated persons are either unemployed or employed in unskilled jobs, i.e., jobs that require only moderate on-the-job training or less, such as construction laborers, taxi drivers, file clerks, or nannies.

Foreign Born
Skill Underutilization among College-Educated Workers (age 25 and older)*

Note: Estimates are based on our analysis of the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2009-2011 ACS data.

 
Total civilian, college-educated labor force, age 25+ 228,065
Number underutilized (i.e., unemployed or employed in low-skilled jobs)
46,780

% of civilian, college-educated labor force, age 25+

20.5%
U.S. Born
Skill Underutilization among College-Educated Workers (age 25 and older)*  
Total civilian, college-educated workers, age 25+ 1,186,170
Number underutilized (i.e., unemployed or employed in low-skilled jobs)
148,940

% of all civilian, college-educated workers, age 25+

12.6%
 
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   

Sources: Migration Policy Institute tabulations of the U.S. Bureau of the Census’ American Community Survey (ACS) and Decennial Census. Unless stated otherwise, 2012 data are from the one-year ACS file. For information about ACS definitions, methodology, sampling error, and nonsampling error, click here. Estimates from the 1990 and 2000 Decennial Census data as well as ACS microdata are from Steven Ruggles, Matthew Sobek, Trent Alexander, Catherine A. Fitch, Ronald Goeken, Patricia Kelly Hall, Miriam King, and Chad Ronnander, "Integrated Public Use Microdata Series: Version 4.0" (Machine-readable database, Minnesota Population Center [producer and distributor], 2011).

Definitions

  • The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.
  • The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.
  • Persons are considered to be in the civilian labor force if they were employed or if they were unemployed but actively looking for work. Persons not in the labor force include homemakers, retirees, students who do not work, and others who are neither working outside the home nor looking for work. Civilian labor force excludes members of the armed forces (Army, Navy, Air Force, Coast Guard, and Marines). Civilian employed population includes anyone who reported performing full or part-time work during a reference week, being temporarily absent from a job, or performing unpaid work for a family business or farm. 
  • The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English “not at all,” “not well,” or “well” on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English “very well” are considered proficient in English.
  • The terms "brain waste" and "skill underutilization" are used interchangeably and describe a phenomenon when college-educated persons are either unemployed or employed in unskilled jobs, i.e., jobs that require only moderate on-the-job training or less, such as construction laborers, taxi drivers, file clerks, or nannies.

Data-related notes

  • The letter N Indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.
  • For “Civilian Labor Force,” “Foreign-Born Labor Force by U.S. Citizenship Status,” “Occupations,” “Industries,” “Class of Worker,”: Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, South Dakota, Vermont, and West Virginia are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2009-2011 American Community Survey (ACS), and North Dakota and Wyoming data are from pooled 2007-2011 ACS. Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2012 ACS.
  • For “Foreign-Born Civilian Employed Workers (age 16 and older) by Period of Entry” and “Foreign-Born Civilian Employed Workers (age 16 and older) by Region of Birth”: The total estimate of foreign-born workers here is somewhat different from other Workforce data due to different ACS data sources.
  • Brain waste estimates are based on the Migration Policy Institute analysis of the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2009-2011 ACS data.