E.g., 04/18/2015
E.g., 04/18/2015

State Workforce Data - CA

California

Workforce
2013
2000
1990
Civilian Labor Force

Note: 1) Persons are considered to be in the civilian labor force if they were employed or if they were unemployed but actively looking for work. Persons not in the labor force include homemakers, retirees, students who do not work, and others who are neither working outside the home nor looking for work. Civilian labor force excludes members of the armed forces (Army, Navy, Air Force, Coast Guard, and Marines). 2) Civilian employed population includes anyone who reported performing full or part-time work during a reference week, being temporarily absent from a job, or performing unpaid work for a family business or farm. 3) Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, South Dakota, Vermont, and West Virginia are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2011-2013 American Community Survey (ACS), and Montana, North Dakota, and Wyoming data are from pooled 2009-2013 ACS. Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2013 ACS. 4) The letter N Indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.

Note: The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.

Foreign Born
Population (16 and older) 9,951,116
% in the civilian labor force 65.2%
Civilian labor force (age 16 and older) 6,488,128
% unemployed of the total civilian labor force 8.4%
Civilian Employed Workers (age 16 and older) 5,941,421
% change: 2000-2013 33.7%
% change: 1990-2000 27.1%

Note: The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.

U.S. Born
Population (16 and older) 20,258,001
% in the civilian labor force 62.0%
Civilian labor force (age 16 and older) 12,559,961
% unemployed of the total civilian labor force 10.9%
Civilian Employed Workers (age 16 and older) 11,191,275
% change: 2000-2011 8.9%
% change: 1990-2000 -1.8%
Foreign Born
Population (16 and older) 8,187,028
% change: 2000-2011 58.9%
Civilian labor force (age 16 and older) 4,826,121
% change: 1990-2000 8.0%
Civilian Employed Workers (age 16 and older) 4,442,292
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (16 and older) 17,422,707
% change: 2000-2011 63.2%
Civilian labor force (age 16 and older) 11,012,905
% change: 1990-2000 6.6%
Civilian Employed Workers (age 16 and older) 10,280,858
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (16 and older) 5,771,610
% change: 2000-2011 66.5%
Civilian labor force (age 16 and older) 3,836,722
% change: 1990-2000 8.9%
Civilian Employed Workers (age 16 and older) 3,495,724
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (16 and older) 16,974,486
% change: 2000-2011 65.6%
Civilian labor force (age 16 and older) 11,127,561
% change: 1990-2000 5.9%
Civilian Employed Workers (age 16 and older) 10,474,055
   
   
Foreign-Born Labor Force by U.S. Citizenship Status

Note: 1) Persons are considered to be in the civilian labor force if they were employed or if they were unemployed but actively looking for work. Persons not in the labor force include homemakers, retirees, students who do not work, and others who are neither working outside the home nor looking for work. Civilian labor force excludes members of the armed forces (Army, Navy, Air Force, Coast Guard, and Marines). 2) Civilian employed population includes anyone who reported performing full or part-time work during a reference week, being temporarily absent from a job, or performing unpaid work for a family business or farm. 3) Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, South Dakota, Vermont, and West Virginia are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2011-2013 American Community Survey (ACS), and Montana, North Dakota, and Wyoming data are from pooled 2009-2013 ACS. Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2013 ACS. 4) The letter N Indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.

Foreign Born
Naturalized Citizens  
Population (16 and older) 4,933,493
% in the civilian labor force
64.4%
Civilian labor force (age 16 and older) 3,177,169
% unemployed of the total civilian labor force 7.0%
Civilian employed workers (age 16 and older) 2,955,617
Noncitizens  
Population (age 16 and older) 5,017,623
% in the civilian labor force
66.0%
Civilian labor force (age 16 and older) 3,311,631
% unemployed of the total civilian labor force
9.8%
Civilian employed workers (age 16 and older) 2,985,804
U.S. Born
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign-Born Workers by Period of Entry and Origin Foreign Born
Foreign-Born Civilian Employed Workers (age 16 and older) by Period of Entry

Note: The total estimate of foreign-born workers here is somewhat different from other Workforce data due to different ACS data sources.

5,958,223
% recent arrivals (i.e., arrived within the last 10 years)
18.7%
Foreign-Born Civilian Employed Workers (age 16 and older) by Region of Birth

Note: The total estimate of foreign-born workers here is somewhat different from other Workforce data due to different ACS data sources.

5,958,223
Born in Africa 1.8%
Born in Asia 35.8%
Born in Europe 6.0%
Born in Latin America (South America, Central America, Mexico, and the Caribbean) 54.5%
Born in Northern America (Canada, Bermuda, Greenland, and St. Pierre and Miquelon) 1.2%
Born in Oceania 0.6%
U.S. Born
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Occupations

Note: 1) Civilian employed population includes anyone who reported performing full or part-time work during a reference week, being temporarily absent from a job, or performing unpaid work for a family business or farm. 2) Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, South Dakota, Vermont, and West Virginia are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2011-2013 American Community Survey (ACS), and Montana, North Dakota, and Wyoming data are from pooled 2009-2013 ACS. Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2013 ACS. 3) The letter N Indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.

Foreign Born
Civilian Workers Age 16 and Older 5,941,421
% Civilian Workers Employed in  
Management, business, science, and arts occupations 28.8%
Service occupations 24.0%
Sales and office occupations 17.8%
Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations 13.6%
Production, transportation, and material moving occupations 15.8%
% Foreign Born by Occupation  
All civilian workers 34.7%
Management, business, science, and arts occupations 27.1%
Service occupations 44.0%
Sales and office occupations 25.9%
Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations 50.4%
Production, transportation, and material moving occupations 49.7%
U.S. Born
Civilian Workers Age 16 and Older 11,191,275
% Civilian Workers Employed in  
Management, business, science, and arts occupations 41.1%
Service occupations 16.2%
Sales and office occupations 27.1%
Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations 7.1%
Production, transportation, and material moving occupations 8.5%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Industries

Note: 1) Civilian employed population includes anyone who reported performing full or part-time work during a reference week, being temporarily absent from a job, or performing unpaid work for a family business or farm. 2) Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, South Dakota, Vermont, and West Virginia are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2011-2013 American Community Survey (ACS), and Montana, North Dakota, and Wyoming data are from pooled 2009-2013 ACS. Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2013 ACS. 3) The letter N Indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.

Foreign Born
Civilian Workers Age 16 and Older 5,941,421
% Civilian Workers Employed in  
Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting, and mining 4.5%
Construction 7.5%
Manufacturing 13.4%
Wholesale trade 3.5%
Retail trade 9.5%
Transportation and warehousing, and utilities 4.6%
Information 1.9%
Finance and insurance, and real estate and rental and leasing 4.7%
Professional, scientific, management, administrative, and waste-management services 13.0%
Educational services, and health care and social assistance 17.0%
Arts, entertainment, recreation, accommodation, and food services 11.0%
Other services (except public administration) 6.8%
Public administration 2.5%
% Foreign Born by Industry  
All civilian workers 34.7%
Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting, and mining 64.8%
Construction 42.9%
Manufacturing 47.4%
Wholesale trade 39.9%
Retail trade 29.1%
Transportation and warehousing, and utilities 34.7%
Information 22.9%
Finance and insurance, and real estate and rental and leasing 25.7%
Professional, scientific, management, administrative, and waste-management services 35.2%
Educational services, and health care and social assistance 28.4%
Arts, entertainment, recreation, accommodation, and food services 37.3%
Other services (except public administration) 44.0%
Public administration 19.7%
U.S. Born
Civilian Workers Age 16 and Older 11,191,275
% Civilian Workers Employed in  
Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting, and mining 1.3%
Construction 5.3%
Manufacturing 7.9%
Wholesale trade 2.8%
Retail trade 12.3%
Transportation and warehousing, and utilities 4.6%
Information 3.4%
Finance and insurance, and real estate and rental and leasing 7.2%
Professional, scientific, management, administrative, and waste-management services 12.7%
Educational services, and health care and social assistance 22.8%
Arts, entertainment, recreation, accommodation, and food services 9.8%
Other services (except public administration) 4.6%
Public administration 5.4%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Class of Worker

Note: 1) Civilian employed population includes anyone who reported performing full or part-time work during a reference week, being temporarily absent from a job, or performing unpaid work for a family business or farm. 2) Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, South Dakota, Vermont, and West Virginia are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2011-2013 American Community Survey (ACS), and Montana, North Dakota, and Wyoming data are from pooled 2009-2013 ACS. Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2013 ACS. 3) The letter N Indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.

Foreign Born
Civilian Employed Workers (age 16 and older) (%) 5,941,421
Private wage and salary workers 81.7%
Government workers 8.8%
Self-employed workers in own not incorporated business 9.3%
Unpaid family workers 0.2%
U.S. Born
Class of Worker (civilian workers age 16 and older) (%) 11,191,275
Private wage and salary workers 76.2%
Government workers 16.0%
Self-employed workers in own not incorporated business 7.7%
Unpaid family workers 0.2%
 
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 25 and older)
 
 
Labor Force Participation by Language Spoken at Home Number
Total Population (native and foreign born) Age 25 and older 25,147,232
In labor force 16,483,364
Not in labor force 8,663,868
Speak only English 14,277,144
In labor force 9,119,480
Not in labor force 5,157,664
Speak Spanish 6,606,775
In labor force 4,621,780
Not in labor force 1,984,995
Speak other Indo-European languages 1,265,735
In labor force 802,849
Not in labor force 462,886
Speak Asian and Pacific Island languages 2,743,735
In labor force 1,775,968
Not in labor force 967,767
Speak other languages 253,843
In labor force 163,287
Not in labor force 90,556
%
Total Population (native and foreign born) age 25 and older 100%
  In labor force 65.5%
Not in labor force 34.5%
Speak only English 100%
  In labor force 63.9%
Not in labor force 36.1%
Speak Spanish 100%
  In labor force 70.0%
Not in labor force 30.0%
Speak other Indo-European languages 100%
  In labor force 63.4%
Not in labor force 36.6%
Speak Asian and Pacific Island languages 100%
  In labor force 64.7%
Not in labor force 35.3%
Speak other languages 100%
  In labor force 64.3%
Not in labor force 35.7%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Workers' Education and English Proficiency

Note: 1) Civilian employed population includes anyone who reported performing full or part-time work during a reference week, being temporarily absent from a job, or performing unpaid work for a family business or farm. 2) The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Foreign Born
Civilian Employed Workers (age 25 and older) 5,635,651
Low-educated workers (i.e., those with high school diploma) 1,721,000
% low educated of all workers
30.5%
High-educated workers (i.e., those with at least a bachelor's degree) 1,684,783
% high educated of all workers
29.9%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Workers (age 25 and older) 3,015,634
% LEP among all workers
53.5%
U.S. Born
Civilian Workers (age 25 and older) 9,401,276
Low-educated workers (i.e., those with high school diploma) 439,115
% low educated of all workers
4.7%
High-educated workers (i.e., those with at least a bachelor's degree) 3,840,612
% high educated of all workers
40.9%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Workers (age 25 and older) 200,966
% LEP among all workers
2.1%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Brain Waste

Note: The terms "brain waste" and "skill underutilization" are used interchangeably and describe a phenomenon when college-educated persons are either unemployed or employed in unskilled jobs, i.e., jobs that require only moderate on-the-job training or less, such as construction laborers, taxi drivers, file clerks, or nannies.

Foreign Born
Skill Underutilization among College-Educated Workers (age 25 and older)*

Note: Estimates are based on Migration Policy Institute analysis of the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2011-2013 ACS data.

 
Total civilian, college-educated labor force, age 25+ 1,752,884
Number underutilized (i.e., unemployed or employed in low-skilled jobs)
383,353

% of civilian, college-educated labor force, age 25+

21.9%
U.S. Born
Skill Underutilization among College-Educated Workers (age 25 and older)*  
Total civilian, college-educated workers, age 25+ 3,964,149
Number underutilized (i.e., unemployed or employed in low-skilled jobs)
678,655

% of all civilian, college-educated workers, age 25+

17.1%
 
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   

Sources: Migration Policy Institute tabulations of the U.S. Bureau of the Census’ American Community Survey (ACS) and Decennial Census. Unless stated otherwise, 2013 data are from the one-year ACS file. For information about ACS definitions, methodology, sampling error, and nonsampling error, click here. Estimates from the 1990 and 2000 Decennial Census data as well as ACS microdata are from Steven Ruggles, Matthew Sobek, Trent Alexander, Catherine A. Fitch, Ronald Goeken, Patricia Kelly Hall, Miriam King, and Chad Ronnander, "Integrated Public Use Microdata Series: Version 4.0" (Machine-readable database, Minnesota Population Center [producer and distributor], 2011).

Definitions

  • The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.
  • The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.
  • Persons are considered to be in the civilian labor force if they were employed or if they were unemployed but actively looking for work. Persons not in the labor force include homemakers, retirees, students who do not work, and others who are neither working outside the home nor looking for work. Civilian labor force excludes members of the armed forces (Army, Navy, Air Force, Coast Guard, and Marines). Civilian employed population includes anyone who reported performing full or part-time work during a reference week, being temporarily absent from a job, or performing unpaid work for a family business or farm. 
  • The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English “not at all,” “not well,” or “well” on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English “very well” are considered proficient in English.
  • The terms "brain waste" and "skill underutilization" are used interchangeably and describe a phenomenon when college-educated persons are either unemployed or employed in unskilled jobs, i.e., jobs that require only moderate on-the-job training or less, such as construction laborers, taxi drivers, file clerks, or nannies.

Data-related notes

  • The letter N Indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.
  • For “Civilian Labor Force,” “Foreign-Born Labor Force by U.S. Citizenship Status,” “Occupations,” “Industries,” and “Class of Worker,”: Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi,  South Dakota, Vermont, and West Virginia are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2011-2013 American Community Survey (ACS), and Montana, North Dakota, and Wyoming data are from pooled 2009-2013 ACS. Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2013 ACS.
  • For “Foreign-Born Civilian Employed Workers (age 16 and older) by Period of Entry,” “Foreign-Born Civilian Employed Workers (age 16 and older) by Region of Birth,” and “Workers' Education and English Proficiency (age 25 and older)”: The total estimate of foreign-born workers here is somewhat different from other Workforce data due to different ACS data sources. These three indicators are based on Migration Policy Institute analysis of the U.S. Census Bureau's 2013 ACS data.
  • Brain waste estimates are based on Migration Policy Institute analysis of the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2011-2013 ACS data.