E.g., 12/20/2014
E.g., 12/20/2014

State Language Data - VA

Virginia

Language & Education
2012
2000
1990
English Proficiency

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Note: The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.

Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 940,940
Speak only English 16.0%
Speak English "very well" 43.7%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 40.3%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2012 59.9%
% change: 1990-2000 105.5%
English Proficiency of the Foreign Born by U.S. Citizenship Status (age 5 and older)*

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

 
Naturalized citizens 453,312
Speak only English 20.3%
Speak English "very well" 50.2%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 29.5%
Noncitizens 487,628
Speak only English 12%
Speak English "very well" 37.6%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 50.4%

Note: The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.

U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 6,737,856
Speak only English 94.1%
Speak English ""very well"" 5.1%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 0.8%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2011 -19.9%
% change: 1990-2000 45.4%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 562,217
Speak only English 18.2%
"Speak English ""very well"" 39.7%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 42.2%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 6,057,049
Speak only English 95.5%
"Speak English ""very well"" 3.4%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1.1%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 305,739
Speak only English 23.2%
"Speak English ""very well"" 39.0%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 37.7%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 5,435,745
Speak only English 96.7%
"Speak English ""very well"" 2.5%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 0.8%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 5 and older)
 
 
Language Spoken at Home (by age and English proficiency)

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Number
Ages 5-17 1,347,561
Speak only English 1,139,389
Speak language other than English 208,172
Speak English "very well"
170,791
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
37,381
Speak Spanish 105,508
Speak English "very well"
86,268
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
19,240
Ages 18-64 5,269,102
Speak only English 4,379,212
Speak language other than English 889,890
Speak English "very well"
541,467
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
348,423
Speak Spanish 388,220
Speak English "very well"
210,587
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
177,633
65 and Older 1,062,133
Speak only English 972,897
Speak language other than English 89,236
Speak English "very well"
42,587
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
46,649
Speak Spanish 21,892
Speak English "very well"
10,699
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
11,193
%
65 and Older 100%
Speak only English 84.6%
Speak language other than English 15.4%
Speak English "very well" 12.7%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 2.8%
Speak Spanish 7.8%
Speak English "very well" 6.4%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 1.4%
Ages 18-64 100%
Speak only English 83.1%
Speak language other than English 16.9%
Speak English "very well" 10.3%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 6.6%
Speak Spanish 7.4%
Speak English "very well" 4.0%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 3.4%
Ages 5-17 100%
Speak only English 91.6%
Speak language other than English 8.4%
Speak English "very well" 4.0%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 4.4%
Speak Spanish 2.1%
Speak English "very well" 1.0%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 1.1%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 5 and older)
 
 
Language Spoken at Home (detailed, by English proficiency)

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Number
Total Household Population, Age 5 and Older 7,678,796
Speak only English 6,491,498
Speak language other than English 1,187,298
Spanish or Spanish Creole 515,620
Speak English "very well" 307,554
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 208,066
French (Including Patois and Cajun) 38,264
Speak English "very well" 29,546
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 8,718
French Creole 7,692
Speak English "very well" 5,731
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,961
Italian 7,359
Speak English "very well" 6,266
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,093
Portuguese or Portuguese Creole 9,198
Speak English "very well" 7,248
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,950
German 32,503
Speak English "very well" 28,086
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 4,417
Yiddish 283
Speak English "very well" 283
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Other West Germanic Languages 4,159
Speak English "very well" 3,743
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 416
Scandinavian Languages 3,391
Speak English "very well" 3,123
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 268
Greek 7,104
Speak English "very well" 5,096
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,008
Russian 17,312
Speak English "very well" 11,172
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 6,140
Polish 3,815
Speak English "very well" 3,495
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 320
Serbo-Croatian 4,957
Speak English "very well" 3,630
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,327
Other Slavic Languages 5,914
Speak English "very well" 4,842
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,072
Armenian 1,194
Speak English "very well" 863
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 331
Persian 27,680
Speak English "very well" 17,777
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 9,903
Gujarati 8,530
Speak English "very well" 5,641
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,889
Hindi 26,242
Speak English "very well" 21,685
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 4,557
Urdu 30,600
Speak English "very well" 21,337
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 9,263
Other Indic Languages 30,545
Speak English "very well" 20,458
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 10,087
Other Indo-European Languages 13,303
Speak English "very well" 9,087
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 4,216
Chinese 49,096
Speak English "very well" 27,658
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 21,438
Japanese 7,823
Speak English "very well" 5,582
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,241
Korean 56,215
Speak English "very well" 26,248
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 29,967
Mon-Khmer, Cambodian 7,586
Speak English "very well" 3,610
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,976
Hmong 787
Speak English "very well" 787
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Thai 7,157
Speak English "very well" 2,632
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 4,525
Laotian 2,230
Speak English "very well" 1,310
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 920
Vietnamese 49,214
Speak English "very well" 22,135
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 27,079
Other Asian Languages 38,365
Speak English "very well" 31,046
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 7,319
Tagalog 51,961
Speak English "very well" 37,123
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 14,838
Other Pacific Island Languages 5,448
Speak English "very well" 3,667
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,781
Navajo 174
Speak English "very well" 174
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Other Native North American Languages 616
Speak English "very well" 595
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 21
Hungarian 1,349
Speak English "very well" 761
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 588
Arabic 50,585
Speak English "very well" 32,442
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 18,143
Hebrew 1,339
Speak English "very well" 816
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 523
African Languages 59,271
Speak English "very well" 40,327
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 18,944
Other and Unspecified Languages 2,417
Speak English "very well" 1,269
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,148
%
Field 306 100%
Field 307 84.5%
Field 308 15.5%
Field 310 100%
Field 310 59.6%
Field 310 40.4%
Field 313 100%
Field 314 77.2%
Field 315 22.8%
Field 316 100%
Field 316 74.5%
Field 316 25.5%
Field 319 100%
Field 319 85.1%
Field 319 14.9%
Field 322 100%
Field 322 78.8%
Field 322 21.2%
Field 325 100%
Field 325 86.4%
Field 325 13.6%
Field 328 100%
Field 328 100.0%
Field 328 N
Field 331 100%
Field 331 90.0%
Field 331 10.0%
Field 334 100%
Field 334 92.1%
Field 334 7.9%
Field 337 100%
Field 337 71.7%
Field 337 28.3%
Field 340 100%
Field 340 64.5%
Field 340 35.5%
Field 343 100%
Field 343 91.6%
Field 343 8.4%
Field 346 100%
Field 346 73.2%
Field 346 26.8%
Field 349 100%
Field 349 81.9%
Field 349 18.1%
Field 352 100%
Field 352 72.3%
Field 352 27.7%
Field 355 100%
Field 355 64.2%
Field 355 35.8%
Field 358 100%
Field 358 66.1%
Field 358 33.9%
Field 361 100%
Field 361 82.6%
Field 361 17.4%
Field 364 100%
Field 364 69.7%
Field 364 30.3%
Field 367 100%
Field 367 67.0%
Field 367 33.0%
Field 370 100%
Field 370 68.3%
Field 370 31.7%
Field 373 100%
Field 373 56.3%
Field 373 43.7%
Field 376 100%
Field 376 71.4%
Field 376 28.6%
Field 379 100%
Field 379 46.7%
Field 379 53.3%
Field 382 100%
Field 382 47.6%
Field 382 52.4%
Field 385 100%
Field 385 100.0%
Field 385 N
Field 388 100%
Field 388 36.8%
Field 388 63.2%
Field 391 100%
Field 391 58.7%
Field 391 41.3%
Field 394 100%
Field 394 45.0%
Field 394 55.0%
Field 397 100%
Field 397 80.9%
Field 397 19.1%
Field 400 100%
Field 400 71.4%
Field 400 28.6%
Field 403 100%
Field 403 67.3%
Field 403 32.7%
Field 406 100%
Field 406 100.0%
Field 406 N
Field 409 100%
Field 409 96.6%
Field 409 3.4%
Field 412 100%
Field 412 56.4%
Field 412 43.6%
Field 415 100%
Field 415 64.1%
Field 415 35.9%
Field 418 100%
Field 418 60.9%
Field 418 39.1%
Field 421 100%
Field 421 68.0%
Field 421 32.0%
Field 424 100%
Field 424 52.5%
Field 424 47.5%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Educational Attainment

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 800,502
Less than high school diploma 19.8%
High school diploma or GED 20.0%
Some college or associate's degree 20.5%
Bachelor's degree 21.7%
Graduate or professional degree 18.1%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 23.8%
Bachelor's degree or higher 16.3%
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2012 49.1%
% change: 1990-2000 98.7%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2012 94.8%
% change: 1990-2000 108.3%
Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status (foreign-born adults, age 25 and older)

Note: 1) Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, South Dakota, Vermont, and West Virginia are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2009-2011 American Community Survey (ACS), and data for North Dakota and Wyoming are from pooled 2007-2011 ACS. Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2012 ACS. 2) The letter N Indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.

 
Naturalized citizens (%) 408,646
Less than high school diploma 11.6%
High school diploma or GED 18%
Some college or associate's degree 25.1%
Bachelor's degree 24.9%
Graduate or professional degree 20.4%
Noncitizens (%) 391,856
Less than high school diploma 28.3%
High school diploma or GED 22%
Some college or associate's degree 15.7%
Bachelor's degree 18.4%
Graduate or professional degree 15.7%
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 4,704,264
Less than high school diploma 10.8%
High school diploma or GED 26.2%
Some college or associate's degree 28.3%
Bachelor's degree 20.4%
Graduate or professional degree 14.3%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Nothing  
Nothing  
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2011 -33.1%
% change: 1990-2000 -18.4%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2011 34.8%
% change: 1990-2000 36.1%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 445,592
Less than high school diploma 23.8%
High school diploma or GED 18.3%
Some college or associate's degree 21.2%
Bachelor's degree 20.4%
Graduate or professional degree 16.3%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 12.3%
Bachelor's degree or higher 11.9%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 4,218,837
Less than high school diploma 18.0%
High school diploma or GED 26.7%
Some college or associate's degree 26.6%
Bachelor's degree 17.6%
Graduate or professional degree 11.1%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 238,476
Less than high school diploma 22.4%
High school diploma or GED 20.6%
Some college or associate's degree 24.0%
Bachelor's degree 18.2%
Graduate or professional degree 14.7%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 5.4%
Bachelor's degree or higher 8.1%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 3,730,719
Less than high school diploma 24.9%
High school diploma or GED 26.9%
Some college or associate's degree 24.3%
Bachelor's degree 15.1%
Graduate or professional degree 8.7%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   

Sources: Migration Policy Institute tabulations of the U.S. Bureau of the Census’ American Community Survey (ACS) and Decennial Census. Unless stated otherwise, 2012 data are from the one-year ACS file. For information about ACS definitions, methodology, sampling error, and nonsampling error, click here. Estimates from the 1990 and 2000 Decennial Census data as well as ACS microdata are from Steven Ruggles, Matthew Sobek, Trent Alexander, Catherine A. Fitch, Ronald Goeken, Patricia Kelly Hall, Miriam King, and Chad Ronnander, "Integrated Public Use Microdata Series: Version 4.0" (Machine-readable database, Minnesota Population Center [producer and distributor], 2011).

Definitions

  • The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.
  • The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.
  • The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English “not at all,” “not well,” or “well” on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English “very well” are considered proficient in English.

Data-related notes

  • The letter N Indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.​
  • For “English proficiency of the foreign born by U.S. citizenship status” and “Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status” : Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, South Dakota, Vermont, and West Virginia are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2009-2011 American Community Survey (ACS), and North Dakota and Wyoming data are from pooled 2007-2011 ACS. Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2012 ACS.