E.g., 08/02/2015
E.g., 08/02/2015

State Language Data - TX

Texas

Language & Education
2013
2000
1990
English Proficiency

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Note: The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.

Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 4,341,625
Speak only English 9.7%
Speak English "very well" 32.0%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 58.3%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2013 47.4%
% change: 1990-2000 98.8%
English Proficiency of the Foreign Born by U.S. Citizenship Status (age 5 and older)*

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

 
Naturalized citizens 1,488,510
Speak only English 14.4%
Speak English "very well" 44%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 41.6%
Noncitizens 2,853,115
Speak only English 7.2%
Speak English "very well" 25.8%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 67.0%

Note: The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.

U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 20,180,070
Speak only English 77.2%
Speak English ""very well"" 18.3%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 4.5%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2011 -5.2%
% change: 1990-2000 6.1%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 2,858,396
Speak only English 10.6%
"Speak English ""very well"" 29.3%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 60.1%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 16,383,122
Speak only English 78.9%
"Speak English ""very well"" 15.3%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 5.8%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 1,491,959
Speak only English 11.6%
"Speak English ""very well"" 30.5%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 57.9%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 14,080,586
Speak only English 81.2%
"Speak English ""very well"" 12.4%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 6.4%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 5 and older)
 
 
Language Spoken at Home (by age and English proficiency)

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Number
Ages 5-17 5,114,420
Speak only English 3,324,238
Speak language other than English 1,790,182
Speak English "very well"
1,337,818
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
452,364
Speak Spanish 1,604,841
Speak English "very well"
1,191,586
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
413,255
Ages 18-64 16,440,748
Speak only English 10,450,595
Speak language other than English 5,990,153
Speak English "very well"
3,427,395
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
2,562,758
Speak Spanish 4,999,734
Speak English "very well"
2,781,368
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
2,218,366
65 and Older 2,966,527
Speak only English 2,229,822
Speak language other than English 736,705
Speak English "very well"
317,345
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
419,360
Speak Spanish 602,643
Speak English "very well"
254,350
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
348,293
%
65 and Older 100%
Speak only English 65.0%
Speak language other than English 35.0%
Speak English "very well" 26.2%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 8.8%
Speak Spanish 31.4%
Speak English "very well" 23.3%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 8.1%
Ages 18-64 100%
Speak only English 63.6%
Speak language other than English 36.4%
Speak English "very well" 20.8%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 15.6%
Speak Spanish 30.4%
Speak English "very well" 16.9%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 13.5%
Ages 5-17 100%
Speak only English 75.2%
Speak language other than English 24.8%
Speak English "very well" 10.7%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 14.1%
Speak Spanish 20.3%
Speak English "very well" 8.6%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 11.7%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 5 and older)
 
 
Language Spoken at Home (detailed, by English proficiency)

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Number
Total Household Population, Age 5 and Older 24,521,695
Speak only English 16,004,655
Speak language other than English 8,517,040
Spanish or Spanish Creole 7,207,218
Speak English "very well" 4,227,304
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,979,914
French (Including Patois and Cajun) 65,387
Speak English "very well" 52,871
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 12,516
French Creole 8,202
Speak English "very well" 5,406
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,796
Italian 10,770
Speak English "very well" 8,276
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,494
Portuguese or Portuguese Creole 21,405
Speak English "very well" 16,577
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 4,828
German 63,232
Speak English "very well" 53,072
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 10,160
Yiddish 614
Speak English "very well" 582
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 32
Other West Germanic Languages 8,363
Speak English "very well" 7,930
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 433
Scandinavian Languages 4,934
Speak English "very well" 4,298
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 636
Greek 6,475
Speak English "very well" 5,367
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,108
Russian 22,676
Speak English "very well" 15,365
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 7,311
Polish 8,682
Speak English "very well" 6,314
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,368
Serbo-Croatian 5,340
Speak English "very well" 3,867
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,473
Other Slavic Languages 9,194
Speak English "very well" 7,087
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,107
Armenian 1,777
Speak English "very well" 1,107
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 670
Persian 28,791
Speak English "very well" 14,420
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 14,371
Gujarati 28,399
Speak English "very well" 20,439
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 7,960
Hindi 61,166
Speak English "very well" 50,707
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 10,459
Urdu 67,526
Speak English "very well" 49,970
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 17,556
Other Indic Languages 56,622
Speak English "very well" 37,291
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 19,331
Other Indo-European Languages 17,336
Speak English "very well" 11,974
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 5,362
Chinese 156,071
Speak English "very well" 86,712
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 69,359
Japanese 15,928
Speak English "very well" 9,918
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 6,010
Korean 52,521
Speak English "very well" 26,381
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 26,140
Mon-Khmer, Cambodian 10,513
Speak English "very well" 5,517
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 4,996
Hmong 2,319
Speak English "very well" 1,205
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,114
Thai 10,152
Speak English "very well" 6,068
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 4,084
Laotian 9,871
Speak English "very well" 4,260
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 5,611
Vietnamese 195,194
Speak English "very well" 84,500
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 110,694
Other Asian Languages 110,526
Speak English "very well" 76,165
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 34,361
Tagalog 78,655
Speak English "very well" 59,317
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 19,338
Other Pacific Island Languages 14,022
Speak English "very well" 10,471
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,551
Navajo 687
Speak English "very well" 595
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 92
Other Native North American Languages 3,007
Speak English "very well" 2,430
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 577
Hungarian 2,473
Speak English "very well" 1,745
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 728
Arabic 60,012
Speak English "very well" 38,949
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 21,063
Hebrew 8,377
Speak English "very well" 7,791
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 586
African Languages 80,646
Speak English "very well" 59,440
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 21,206
Other and Unspecified Languages 1,957
Speak English "very well" 870
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,087
%
Field 306 100%
Field 307 65.3%
Field 308 34.7%
Field 310 100%
Field 310 58.7%
Field 310 41.3%
Field 313 100%
Field 314 80.9%
Field 315 19.1%
Field 316 100%
Field 316 65.9%
Field 316 34.1%
Field 319 100%
Field 319 76.8%
Field 319 23.2%
Field 322 100%
Field 322 77.4%
Field 322 22.6%
Field 325 100%
Field 325 83.9%
Field 325 16.1%
Field 328 100%
Field 328 94.8%
Field 328 5.2%
Field 331 100%
Field 331 94.8%
Field 331 5.2%
Field 334 100%
Field 334 87.1%
Field 334 12.9%
Field 337 100%
Field 337 82.9%
Field 337 17.1%
Field 340 100%
Field 340 67.8%
Field 340 32.2%
Field 343 100%
Field 343 72.7%
Field 343 27.3%
Field 346 100%
Field 346 72.4%
Field 346 27.6%
Field 349 100%
Field 349 77.1%
Field 349 22.9%
Field 352 100%
Field 352 62.3%
Field 352 37.7%
Field 355 100%
Field 355 50.1%
Field 355 49.9%
Field 358 100%
Field 358 72.0%
Field 358 28.0%
Field 361 100%
Field 361 82.9%
Field 361 17.1%
Field 364 100%
Field 364 74.0%
Field 364 26.0%
Field 367 100%
Field 367 65.9%
Field 367 34.1%
Field 370 100%
Field 370 69.1%
Field 370 30.9%
Field 373 100%
Field 373 55.6%
Field 373 44.4%
Field 376 100%
Field 376 62.3%
Field 376 37.7%
Field 379 100%
Field 379 50.2%
Field 379 49.8%
Field 382 100%
Field 382 52.5%
Field 382 47.5%
Field 385 100%
Field 385 52.0%
Field 385 48.0%
Field 388 100%
Field 388 59.8%
Field 388 40.2%
Field 391 100%
Field 391 43.2%
Field 391 56.8%
Field 394 100%
Field 394 43.3%
Field 394 56.7%
Field 397 100%
Field 397 68.9%
Field 397 31.1%
Field 400 100%
Field 400 75.4%
Field 400 24.6%
Field 403 100%
Field 403 74.7%
Field 403 25.3%
Field 406 100%
Field 406 86.6%
Field 406 13.4%
Field 409 100%
Field 409 80.8%
Field 409 19.2%
Field 412 100%
Field 412 70.6%
Field 412 29.4%
Field 415 100%
Field 415 64.9%
Field 415 35.1%
Field 418 100%
Field 418 93.0%
Field 418 7.0%
Field 421 100%
Field 421 73.7%
Field 421 26.3%
Field 424 100%
Field 424 44.5%
Field 424 55.5%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Educational Attainment

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 3,701,057
Less than high school diploma 42.2%
High school diploma or GED 20.6%
Some college or associate's degree 15.2%
Bachelor's degree 13.0%
Graduate or professional degree 9.1%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 51.7%
Bachelor's degree or higher 17.7%
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2013 33.7%
% change: 1990-2000 85.2%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2013 120.1%
% change: 1990-2000 119.0%
Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status (foreign-born adults, age 25 and older)

Note: 1) Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, South Dakota, Vermont, and West Virginia are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2011-2013 American Community Survey (ACS), and Montana, North Dakota, and Wyoming data are from pooled 2009-2013 ACS. Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2013 ACS. 2) The letter N Indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.

 
Naturalized citizens (%) 1,379,593
Less than high school diploma 26.6%
High school diploma or GED 19.2%
Some college or associate's degree 21.5%
Bachelor's degree 19.9%
Graduate or professional degree 12.8%
Noncitizens (%) 2,321,464
Less than high school diploma 51.4%
High school diploma or GED 21.4%
Some college or associate's degree 11.5%
Bachelor's degree 8.8%
Graduate or professional degree 6.8%
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 12,972,599
Less than high school diploma 11.2%
High school diploma or GED 26.6%
Some college or associate's degree 33.1%
Bachelor's degree 19.8%
Graduate or professional degree 9.3%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Nothing  
Nothing  
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2011 -25.0%
% change: 1990-2000 -13.1%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2011 45.6%
% change: 1990-2000 35.2%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 2,162,235
Less than high school diploma 54.0%
High school diploma or GED 14.9%
Some college or associate's degree 14.0%
Bachelor's degree 9.7%
Graduate or professional degree 7.4%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 37.5%
Bachelor's degree or higher 12.5%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 10,620,896
Less than high school diploma 18.3%
High school diploma or GED 26.9%
Some college or associate's degree 30.4%
Bachelor's degree 16.8%
Graduate or professional degree 7.7%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 1,112,155
Less than high school diploma 56.6%
High school diploma or GED 13.9%
Some college or associate's degree 14.2%
Bachelor's degree 8.6%
Graduate or professional degree 6.6%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 22.0%
Bachelor's degree or higher 8.1%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 9,186,460
Less than high school diploma 24.3%
High school diploma or GED 27.1%
Some college or associate's degree 27.6%
Bachelor's degree 14.4%
Graduate or professional degree 6.4%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   

Sources: Migration Policy Institute tabulations of the U.S. Bureau of the Census’ American Community Survey (ACS) and Decennial Census. Unless stated otherwise, 2013 data are from the one-year ACS file. For information about ACS definitions, methodology, sampling error, and nonsampling error, click here. Estimates from the 1990 and 2000 Decennial Census data as well as ACS microdata are from Steven Ruggles, Matthew Sobek, Trent Alexander, Catherine A. Fitch, Ronald Goeken, Patricia Kelly Hall, Miriam King, and Chad Ronnander, "Integrated Public Use Microdata Series: Version 4.0" (Machine-readable database, Minnesota Population Center [producer and distributor], 2011).

Definitions

  • The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.
  • The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.
  • The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English “not at all,” “not well,” or “well” on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English “very well” are considered proficient in English.

Data-related notes

  • The letter N Indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.​
  • For “English proficiency of the foreign born by U.S. citizenship status” and “Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status”: Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, South Dakota, Vermont, and West Virginia are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2011-2013 American Community Survey (ACS), and Montana, North Dakota, and Wyoming data are from pooled 2009-2013 ACS. Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2013 ACS.