E.g., 10/31/2014
E.g., 10/31/2014

State Language Data - TX

Texas

Language & Education
2012
2000
1990
English Proficiency

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Note: The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.

Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 4,247,190
Speak only English 8.7%
Speak English "very well" 32.6%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 58.8%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2012 45.3%
% change: 1990-2000 98.8%
English Proficiency of the Foreign Born by U.S. Citizenship Status (age 5 and older)*

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

 
Naturalized citizens 1,434,723
Speak only English 13.6%
Speak English "very well" 43.6%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 42.8%
Noncitizens 2,812,467
Speak only English 6.2%
Speak English "very well" 26.9%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 66.9%

Note: The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.

U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 19,879,165
Speak only English 76.8%
Speak English ""very well"" 18.7%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 4.5%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2011 -6.2%
% change: 1990-2000 6.1%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 2,858,396
Speak only English 10.6%
"Speak English ""very well"" 29.3%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 60.1%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 16,383,122
Speak only English 78.9%
"Speak English ""very well"" 15.3%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 5.8%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 1,491,959
Speak only English 11.6%
"Speak English ""very well"" 30.5%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 57.9%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 14,080,586
Speak only English 81.2%
"Speak English ""very well"" 12.4%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 6.4%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 5 and older)
 
 
Language Spoken at Home (by age and English proficiency)

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Number
Ages 5-17 5,048,327
Speak only English 3,211,341
Speak language other than English 1,836,986
Speak English "very well"
1,381,201
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
455,785
Speak Spanish 1,640,662
Speak English "very well"
1,229,366
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
411,296
Ages 18-64 16,240,306
Speak only English 10,300,720
Speak language other than English 5,939,586
Speak English "very well"
3,416,733
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
2,522,853
Speak Spanish 4,970,926
Speak English "very well"
2,802,806
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
2,168,120
65 and Older 2,837,722
Speak only English 2,122,396
Speak language other than English 715,326
Speak English "very well"
304,639
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
410,687
Speak Spanish 574,896
Speak English "very well"
238,078
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
336,818
%
65 and Older 100%
Speak only English 63.6%
Speak language other than English 36.4%
Speak English "very well" 27.4%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 9.0%
Speak Spanish 32.5%
Speak English "very well" 24.4%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 8.1%
Ages 18-64 100%
Speak only English 63.4%
Speak language other than English 36.6%
Speak English "very well" 21.0%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 15.5%
Speak Spanish 30.6%
Speak English "very well" 17.3%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 13.4%
Ages 5-17 100%
Speak only English 74.8%
Speak language other than English 25.2%
Speak English "very well" 10.7%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 14.5%
Speak Spanish 20.3%
Speak English "very well" 8.4%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 11.9%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 5 and older)
 
 
Language Spoken at Home (detailed, by English proficiency)

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Number
Total Household Population, Age 5 and Older 24,126,355
Speak only English 15,634,457
Speak language other than English 8,491,898
Spanish or Spanish Creole 7,186,484
Speak English "very well" 4,270,250
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,916,234
French (Including Patois and Cajun) 65,595
Speak English "very well" 51,912
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 13,683
French Creole 5,934
Speak English "very well" 3,702
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,232
Italian 14,066
Speak English "very well" 11,845
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,221
Portuguese or Portuguese Creole 20,120
Speak English "very well" 14,185
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 5,935
German 69,516
Speak English "very well" 58,959
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 10,557
Yiddish 63
Speak English "very well" 63
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Other West Germanic Languages 6,940
Speak English "very well" 6,243
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 697
Scandinavian Languages 6,491
Speak English "very well" 5,489
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,002
Greek 6,715
Speak English "very well" 5,369
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,346
Russian 20,987
Speak English "very well" 15,964
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 5,023
Polish 8,962
Speak English "very well" 6,712
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,250
Serbo-Croatian 5,843
Speak English "very well" 3,443
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,400
Other Slavic Languages 10,726
Speak English "very well" 7,825
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,901
Armenian 1,770
Speak English "very well" 1,521
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 249
Persian 27,871
Speak English "very well" 15,836
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 12,035
Gujarati 31,356
Speak English "very well" 20,451
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 10,905
Hindi 66,409
Speak English "very well" 51,222
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 15,187
Urdu 54,236
Speak English "very well" 38,710
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 15,526
Other Indic Languages 57,701
Speak English "very well" 36,911
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 20,790
Other Indo-European Languages 19,194
Speak English "very well" 13,068
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 6,126
Chinese 142,288
Speak English "very well" 70,813
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 71,475
Japanese 17,412
Speak English "very well" 10,555
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 6,857
Korean 65,489
Speak English "very well" 28,384
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 37,105
Mon-Khmer, Cambodian 9,061
Speak English "very well" 4,200
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 4,861
Hmong 338
Speak English "very well" 338
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Thai 7,978
Speak English "very well" 4,131
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,847
Laotian 13,129
Speak English "very well" 6,219
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 6,910
Vietnamese 189,105
Speak English "very well" 80,260
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 108,845
Other Asian Languages 93,352
Speak English "very well" 68,746
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 24,606
Tagalog 73,903
Speak English "very well" 56,870
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 17,033
Other Pacific Island Languages 20,766
Speak English "very well" 16,715
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 4,051
Navajo 1,698
Speak English "very well" 1,488
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 210
Other Native North American Languages 3,635
Speak English "very well" 2,755
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 880
Hungarian 3,266
Speak English "very well" 2,692
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 574
Arabic 65,891
Speak English "very well" 39,765
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 26,126
Hebrew 6,208
Speak English "very well" 4,705
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,503
African Languages 88,805
Speak English "very well" 62,229
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 26,576
Other and Unspecified Languages 2,595
Speak English "very well" 2,028
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 567
%
Field 306 100%
Field 307 64.8%
Field 308 35.2%
Field 310 100%
Field 310 59.4%
Field 310 40.6%
Field 313 100%
Field 314 79.1%
Field 315 20.9%
Field 316 100%
Field 316 62.4%
Field 316 37.6%
Field 319 100%
Field 319 84.2%
Field 319 15.8%
Field 322 100%
Field 322 70.5%
Field 322 29.5%
Field 325 100%
Field 325 84.8%
Field 325 15.2%
Field 328 100%
Field 328 100.0%
Field 328 N
Field 331 100%
Field 331 90.0%
Field 331 10.0%
Field 334 100%
Field 334 84.6%
Field 334 15.4%
Field 337 100%
Field 337 80.0%
Field 337 20.0%
Field 340 100%
Field 340 76.1%
Field 340 23.9%
Field 343 100%
Field 343 74.9%
Field 343 25.1%
Field 346 100%
Field 346 58.9%
Field 346 41.1%
Field 349 100%
Field 349 73.0%
Field 349 27.0%
Field 352 100%
Field 352 85.9%
Field 352 14.1%
Field 355 100%
Field 355 56.8%
Field 355 43.2%
Field 358 100%
Field 358 65.2%
Field 358 34.8%
Field 361 100%
Field 361 77.1%
Field 361 22.9%
Field 364 100%
Field 364 71.4%
Field 364 28.6%
Field 367 100%
Field 367 64.0%
Field 367 36.0%
Field 370 100%
Field 370 68.1%
Field 370 31.9%
Field 373 100%
Field 373 49.8%
Field 373 50.2%
Field 376 100%
Field 376 60.6%
Field 376 39.4%
Field 379 100%
Field 379 43.3%
Field 379 56.7%
Field 382 100%
Field 382 46.4%
Field 382 53.6%
Field 385 100%
Field 385 100.0%
Field 385 N
Field 388 100%
Field 388 51.8%
Field 388 48.2%
Field 391 100%
Field 391 47.4%
Field 391 52.6%
Field 394 100%
Field 394 42.4%
Field 394 57.6%
Field 397 100%
Field 397 73.6%
Field 397 26.4%
Field 400 100%
Field 400 77.0%
Field 400 23.0%
Field 403 100%
Field 403 80.5%
Field 403 19.5%
Field 406 100%
Field 406 87.6%
Field 406 12.4%
Field 409 100%
Field 409 75.8%
Field 409 24.2%
Field 412 100%
Field 412 82.4%
Field 412 17.6%
Field 415 100%
Field 415 60.3%
Field 415 39.7%
Field 418 100%
Field 418 75.8%
Field 418 24.2%
Field 421 100%
Field 421 70.1%
Field 421 29.9%
Field 424 100%
Field 424 78.2%
Field 424 21.8%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Educational Attainment

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 3,590,080
Less than high school diploma 43.6%
High school diploma or GED 19.5%
Some college or associate's degree 16.1%
Bachelor's degree 12.5%
Graduate or professional degree 8.3%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 51.4%
Bachelor's degree or higher 17.1%
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2012 34.1%
% change: 1990-2000 85.2%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2012 102.5%
% change: 1990-2000 119.0%
Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status (foreign-born adults, age 25 and older)

Note: 1) Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, South Dakota, Vermont, and West Virginia are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2009-2011 American Community Survey (ACS), and data for North Dakota and Wyoming are from pooled 2007-2011 ACS. Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2012 ACS. 2) The letter N Indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.

 
Naturalized citizens (%) 1,332,780
Less than high school diploma 28.4%
High school diploma or GED 19%
Some college or associate's degree 22.3%
Bachelor's degree 18.3%
Graduate or professional degree 12%
Noncitizens (%) 2,257,300
Less than high school diploma 52.5%
High school diploma or GED 19.7%
Some college or associate's degree 12.4%
Bachelor's degree 9.2%
Graduate or professional degree 6.2%
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 12,800,299
Less than high school diploma 11.5%
High school diploma or GED 26.8%
Some college or associate's degree 33.3%
Bachelor's degree 19.2%
Graduate or professional degree 9.2%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Nothing  
Nothing  
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2011 -24.0%
% change: 1990-2000 -13.1%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2011 40.0%
% change: 1990-2000 35.2%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 2,162,235
Less than high school diploma 54.0%
High school diploma or GED 14.9%
Some college or associate's degree 14.0%
Bachelor's degree 9.7%
Graduate or professional degree 7.4%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 37.5%
Bachelor's degree or higher 12.5%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 10,620,896
Less than high school diploma 18.3%
High school diploma or GED 26.9%
Some college or associate's degree 30.4%
Bachelor's degree 16.8%
Graduate or professional degree 7.7%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 1,112,155
Less than high school diploma 56.6%
High school diploma or GED 13.9%
Some college or associate's degree 14.2%
Bachelor's degree 8.6%
Graduate or professional degree 6.6%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 22.0%
Bachelor's degree or higher 8.1%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 9,186,460
Less than high school diploma 24.3%
High school diploma or GED 27.1%
Some college or associate's degree 27.6%
Bachelor's degree 14.4%
Graduate or professional degree 6.4%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   

Sources: Migration Policy Institute tabulations of the U.S. Bureau of the Census’ American Community Survey (ACS) and Decennial Census. Unless stated otherwise, 2012 data are from the one-year ACS file. For information about ACS definitions, methodology, sampling error, and nonsampling error, click here. Estimates from the 1990 and 2000 Decennial Census data as well as ACS microdata are from Steven Ruggles, Matthew Sobek, Trent Alexander, Catherine A. Fitch, Ronald Goeken, Patricia Kelly Hall, Miriam King, and Chad Ronnander, "Integrated Public Use Microdata Series: Version 4.0" (Machine-readable database, Minnesota Population Center [producer and distributor], 2011).

Definitions

  • The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.
  • The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.
  • The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English “not at all,” “not well,” or “well” on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English “very well” are considered proficient in English.

Data-related notes

  • The letter N Indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.​
  • For “English proficiency of the foreign born by U.S. citizenship status” and “Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status” : Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, South Dakota, Vermont, and West Virginia are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2009-2011 American Community Survey (ACS), and North Dakota and Wyoming data are from pooled 2007-2011 ACS. Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2012 ACS.