E.g., 10/31/2014
E.g., 10/31/2014

State Language Data - MA

Massachusetts

Language & Education
2012
2000
1990
English Proficiency

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Note: The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.

Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 989,441
Speak only English 18.0%
Speak English "very well" 37.1%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 44.9%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2012 36.4%
% change: 1990-2000 45.6%
English Proficiency of the Foreign Born by U.S. Citizenship Status (age 5 and older)*

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

 
Naturalized citizens 508,779
Speak only English 22.6%
Speak English "very well" 39.9%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 37.5%
Noncitizens 480,662
Speak only English 13%
Speak English "very well" 34.3%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 52.7%

Note: The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.

U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 5,292,844
Speak only English 88.8%
Speak English ""very well"" 9.0%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2.2%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2011 -13.0%
% change: 1990-2000 3.0%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 764,008
Speak only English 21.9%
"Speak English ""very well"" 35.5%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 42.6%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 5,190,241
Speak only English 90.0%
"Speak English ""very well"" 7.4%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2.6%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 568,001
Speak only English 28.4%
"Speak English ""very well"" 32.2%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 39.4%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 5,038,492
Speak only English 91.0%
"Speak English ""very well"" 6.4%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2.6%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 5 and older)
 
 
Language Spoken at Home (by age and English proficiency)

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Number
Ages 5-17 1,037,396
Speak only English 811,849
Speak language other than English 225,547
Speak English "very well"
183,525
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
42,022
Speak Spanish 109,679
Speak English "very well"
89,089
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
20,590
Ages 18-64 4,283,858
Speak only English 3,272,607
Speak language other than English 1,011,251
Speak English "very well"
594,368
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
416,883
Speak Spanish 385,141
Speak English "very well"
212,567
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
172,574
65 and Older 961,031
Speak only English 794,505
Speak language other than English 166,526
Speak English "very well"
65,085
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
101,441
Speak Spanish 31,624
Speak English "very well"
7,293
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
24,331
%
65 and Older 100%
Speak only English 78.3%
Speak language other than English 21.7%
Speak English "very well" 17.7%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 4.1%
Speak Spanish 10.6%
Speak English "very well" 8.6%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 2.0%
Ages 18-64 100%
Speak only English 76.4%
Speak language other than English 23.6%
Speak English "very well" 13.9%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 9.7%
Speak Spanish 9.0%
Speak English "very well" 5.0%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 4.0%
Ages 5-17 100%
Speak only English 82.7%
Speak language other than English 17.3%
Speak English "very well" 6.8%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 10.6%
Speak Spanish 3.3%
Speak English "very well" 0.8%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 2.5%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 5 and older)
 
 
Language Spoken at Home (detailed, by English proficiency)

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Number
Total Household Population, Age 5 and Older 6,282,285
Speak only English 4,878,961
Speak language other than English 1,403,324
Spanish or Spanish Creole 526,444
Speak English "very well" 308,949
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 217,495
French (Including Patois and Cajun) 61,549
Speak English "very well" 49,651
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 11,898
French Creole 72,237
Speak English "very well" 38,841
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 33,396
Italian 39,747
Speak English "very well" 29,588
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 10,159
Portuguese or Portuguese Creole 173,705
Speak English "very well" 94,977
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 78,728
German 20,812
Speak English "very well" 18,995
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,817
Yiddish 613
Speak English "very well" 550
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 63
Other West Germanic Languages 3,985
Speak English "very well" 3,556
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 429
Scandinavian Languages 3,859
Speak English "very well" 3,626
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 233
Greek 22,240
Speak English "very well" 15,902
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 6,338
Russian 39,364
Speak English "very well" 22,887
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 16,477
Polish 18,661
Speak English "very well" 12,771
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 5,890
Serbo-Croatian 5,564
Speak English "very well" 4,142
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,422
Other Slavic Languages 6,627
Speak English "very well" 4,851
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,776
Armenian 6,376
Speak English "very well" 5,540
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 836
Persian 6,259
Speak English "very well" 4,051
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,208
Gujarati 11,402
Speak English "very well" 7,458
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,944
Hindi 19,680
Speak English "very well" 15,263
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 4,417
Urdu 5,013
Speak English "very well" 4,146
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 867
Other Indic Languages 18,583
Speak English "very well" 10,181
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 8,402
Other Indo-European Languages 21,964
Speak English "very well" 15,147
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 6,817
Chinese 112,659
Speak English "very well" 51,587
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 61,072
Japanese 7,877
Speak English "very well" 3,896
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,981
Korean 17,080
Speak English "very well" 9,311
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 7,769
Mon-Khmer, Cambodian 21,805
Speak English "very well" 10,700
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 11,105
Hmong 939
Speak English "very well" 333
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 606
Thai 3,561
Speak English "very well" 1,863
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,698
Laotian 4,189
Speak English "very well" 2,008
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,181
Vietnamese 42,011
Speak English "very well" 18,640
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 23,371
Other Asian Languages 24,561
Speak English "very well" 19,272
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 5,289
Tagalog 6,541
Speak English "very well" 4,801
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,740
Other Pacific Island Languages 1,019
Speak English "very well" 750
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 269
Navajo 43
Speak English "very well" 43
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Other Native North American Languages 432
Speak English "very well" 365
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 67
Hungarian 994
Speak English "very well" 778
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 216
Arabic 32,391
Speak English "very well" 17,761
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 14,630
Hebrew 7,033
Speak English "very well" 5,974
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,059
African Languages 32,728
Speak English "very well" 22,008
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 10,720
Other and Unspecified Languages 2,777
Speak English "very well" 1,816
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 961
%
Field 306 100%
Field 307 77.7%
Field 308 22.3%
Field 310 100%
Field 310 58.7%
Field 310 41.3%
Field 313 100%
Field 314 80.7%
Field 315 19.3%
Field 316 100%
Field 316 53.8%
Field 316 46.2%
Field 319 100%
Field 319 74.4%
Field 319 25.6%
Field 322 100%
Field 322 54.7%
Field 322 45.3%
Field 325 100%
Field 325 91.3%
Field 325 8.7%
Field 328 100%
Field 328 89.7%
Field 328 10.3%
Field 331 100%
Field 331 89.2%
Field 331 10.8%
Field 334 100%
Field 334 94.0%
Field 334 6.0%
Field 337 100%
Field 337 71.5%
Field 337 28.5%
Field 340 100%
Field 340 58.1%
Field 340 41.9%
Field 343 100%
Field 343 68.4%
Field 343 31.6%
Field 346 100%
Field 346 74.4%
Field 346 25.6%
Field 349 100%
Field 349 73.2%
Field 349 26.8%
Field 352 100%
Field 352 86.9%
Field 352 13.1%
Field 355 100%
Field 355 64.7%
Field 355 35.3%
Field 358 100%
Field 358 65.4%
Field 358 34.6%
Field 361 100%
Field 361 77.6%
Field 361 22.4%
Field 364 100%
Field 364 82.7%
Field 364 17.3%
Field 367 100%
Field 367 54.8%
Field 367 45.2%
Field 370 100%
Field 370 69.0%
Field 370 31.0%
Field 373 100%
Field 373 45.8%
Field 373 54.2%
Field 376 100%
Field 376 49.5%
Field 376 50.5%
Field 379 100%
Field 379 54.5%
Field 379 45.5%
Field 382 100%
Field 382 49.1%
Field 382 50.9%
Field 385 100%
Field 385 35.5%
Field 385 64.5%
Field 388 100%
Field 388 52.3%
Field 388 47.7%
Field 391 100%
Field 391 47.9%
Field 391 52.1%
Field 394 100%
Field 394 44.4%
Field 394 55.6%
Field 397 100%
Field 397 78.5%
Field 397 21.5%
Field 400 100%
Field 400 73.4%
Field 400 26.6%
Field 403 100%
Field 403 73.6%
Field 403 26.4%
Field 406 100%
Field 406 100.0%
Field 406 N
Field 409 100%
Field 409 84.5%
Field 409 15.5%
Field 412 100%
Field 412 78.3%
Field 412 21.7%
Field 415 100%
Field 415 54.8%
Field 415 45.2%
Field 418 100%
Field 418 84.9%
Field 418 15.1%
Field 421 100%
Field 421 67.2%
Field 421 32.8%
Field 424 100%
Field 424 65.4%
Field 424 34.6%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Educational Attainment

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 852,187
Less than high school diploma 23.0%
High school diploma or GED 24.6%
Some college or associate's degree 18.1%
Bachelor's degree 16.8%
Graduate or professional degree 17.5%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 41.5%
Bachelor's degree or higher 16.3%
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2012 -0.2%
% change: 1990-2000 2.5%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2012 54.6%
% change: 1990-2000 89.0%
Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status (foreign-born adults, age 25 and older)

Note: 1) Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, South Dakota, Vermont, and West Virginia are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2009-2011 American Community Survey (ACS), and data for North Dakota and Wyoming are from pooled 2007-2011 ACS. Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2012 ACS. 2) The letter N Indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.

 
Naturalized citizens (%) 467,823
Less than high school diploma 20.8%
High school diploma or GED 23.5%
Some college or associate's degree 21.5%
Bachelor's degree 17.5%
Graduate or professional degree 16.7%
Noncitizens (%) 384,364
Less than high school diploma 25.6%
High school diploma or GED 26%
Some college or associate's degree 14%
Bachelor's degree 16%
Graduate or professional degree 18.4%
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 3,704,422
Less than high school diploma 7.4%
High school diploma or GED 26.2%
Some college or associate's degree 25.9%
Bachelor's degree 23.4%
Graduate or professional degree 17.0%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Nothing  
Nothing  
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2011 -39.7%
% change: 1990-2000 -24.1%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2011 22.0%
% change: 1990-2000 25.7%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 622,757
Less than high school diploma 31.5%
High school diploma or GED 21.2%
Some college or associate's degree 16.9%
Bachelor's degree 15.0%
Graduate or professional degree 15.4%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 30.0%
Bachelor's degree or higher 13.4%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 3,653,889
Less than high school diploma 12.5%
High school diploma or GED 28.2%
Some college or associate's degree 25.7%
Bachelor's degree 20.2%
Graduate or professional degree 13.3%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 464,366
Less than high school diploma 41.2%
High school diploma or GED 21.9%
Some college or associate's degree 15.4%
Bachelor's degree 10.8%
Graduate or professional degree 10.8%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 24.1%
Bachelor's degree or higher 9.3%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 3,498,325
Less than high school diploma 17.2%
High school diploma or GED 30.8%
Some college or associate's degree 24.1%
Bachelor's degree 17.4%
Graduate or professional degree 10.5%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   

Sources: Migration Policy Institute tabulations of the U.S. Bureau of the Census’ American Community Survey (ACS) and Decennial Census. Unless stated otherwise, 2012 data are from the one-year ACS file. For information about ACS definitions, methodology, sampling error, and nonsampling error, click here. Estimates from the 1990 and 2000 Decennial Census data as well as ACS microdata are from Steven Ruggles, Matthew Sobek, Trent Alexander, Catherine A. Fitch, Ronald Goeken, Patricia Kelly Hall, Miriam King, and Chad Ronnander, "Integrated Public Use Microdata Series: Version 4.0" (Machine-readable database, Minnesota Population Center [producer and distributor], 2011).

Definitions

  • The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.
  • The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.
  • The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English “not at all,” “not well,” or “well” on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English “very well” are considered proficient in English.

Data-related notes

  • The letter N Indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.​
  • For “English proficiency of the foreign born by U.S. citizenship status” and “Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status” : Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, South Dakota, Vermont, and West Virginia are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2009-2011 American Community Survey (ACS), and North Dakota and Wyoming data are from pooled 2007-2011 ACS. Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2012 ACS.