E.g., 04/19/2015
E.g., 04/19/2015

State Language Data - MA

Massachusetts

Language & Education
2013
2000
1990
English Proficiency

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Note: The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.

Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 1,040,069
Speak only English 19.2%
Speak English "very well" 37.7%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 43.1%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2013 37.8%
% change: 1990-2000 45.6%
English Proficiency of the Foreign Born by U.S. Citizenship Status (age 5 and older)*

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

 
Naturalized citizens 548,229
Speak only English 23.3%
Speak English "very well" 40.6%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 36.1%
Noncitizens 491,840
Speak only English 14.6%
Speak English "very well" 34.4%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 51.0%

Note: The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.

U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 5,288,830
Speak only English 89.1%
Speak English ""very well"" 8.8%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2.1%
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Population: Change over Time  
% change: 2000-2011 -16.0%
% change: 1990-2000 3.0%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 764,008
Speak only English 21.9%
"Speak English ""very well"" 35.5%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 42.6%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 5,190,241
Speak only English 90.0%
"Speak English ""very well"" 7.4%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2.6%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 568,001
Speak only English 28.4%
"Speak English ""very well"" 32.2%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 39.4%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
English Proficiency (age 5 and older) (%) 5,038,492
Speak only English 91.0%
"Speak English ""very well"" 6.4%
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2.6%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 5 and older)
 
 
Language Spoken at Home (by age and English proficiency)

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Number
Ages 5-17 1,029,030
Speak only English 804,177
Speak language other than English 224,853
Speak English "very well"
181,704
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
43,149
Speak Spanish 109,669
Speak English "very well"
89,377
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
20,292
Ages 18-64 4,309,772
Speak only English 3,284,998
Speak language other than English 1,024,774
Speak English "very well"
607,113
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
417,661
Speak Spanish 391,738
Speak English "very well"
215,897
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
175,841
65 and Older 990,097
Speak only English 823,257
Speak language other than English 166,840
Speak English "very well"
66,898
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
99,942
Speak Spanish 34,783
Speak English "very well"
8,818
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP)
25,965
%
65 and Older 100%
Speak only English 78.1%
Speak language other than English 21.9%
Speak English "very well" 17.7%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 4.2%
Speak Spanish 10.7%
Speak English "very well" 8.7%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 2.0%
Ages 18-64 100%
Speak only English 76.2%
Speak language other than English 23.8%
Speak English "very well" 14.1%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 9.7%
Speak Spanish 9.1%
Speak English "very well" 5.0%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 4.1%
Ages 5-17 100%
Speak only English 83.1%
Speak language other than English 16.9%
Speak English "very well" 6.8%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 10.1%
Speak Spanish 3.5%
Speak English "very well" 0.9%
Speak English less than "very well" (LEP) 2.6%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Population (age 5 and older)
 
 
Language Spoken at Home (detailed, by English proficiency)

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Number
Total Household Population, Age 5 and Older 6,328,899
Speak only English 4,912,432
Speak language other than English 1,416,467
Spanish or Spanish Creole 536,190
Speak English "very well" 314,092
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 222,098
French (Including Patois and Cajun) 58,365
Speak English "very well" 49,650
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 8,715
French Creole 73,103
Speak English "very well" 40,494
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 32,609
Italian 33,088
Speak English "very well" 23,946
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 9,142
Portuguese or Portuguese Creole 177,623
Speak English "very well" 96,618
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 81,005
German 14,984
Speak English "very well" 13,178
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,806
Yiddish 420
Speak English "very well" 367
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 53
Other West Germanic Languages 3,963
Speak English "very well" 3,490
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 473
Scandinavian Languages 3,839
Speak English "very well" 3,634
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 205
Greek 25,385
Speak English "very well" 18,580
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 6,805
Russian 33,415
Speak English "very well" 20,453
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 12,962
Polish 18,865
Speak English "very well" 11,825
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 7,040
Serbo-Croatian 5,743
Speak English "very well" 4,257
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,486
Other Slavic Languages 6,876
Speak English "very well" 4,656
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,220
Armenian 8,423
Speak English "very well" 6,525
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,898
Persian 5,849
Speak English "very well" 3,826
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,023
Gujarati 8,051
Speak English "very well" 5,652
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,399
Hindi 19,546
Speak English "very well" 16,106
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 3,440
Urdu 6,770
Speak English "very well" 5,617
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,153
Other Indic Languages 24,824
Speak English "very well" 13,162
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 11,662
Other Indo-European Languages 19,083
Speak English "very well" 10,870
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 8,213
Chinese 111,863
Speak English "very well" 55,904
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 55,959
Japanese 10,789
Speak English "very well" 6,679
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 4,110
Korean 18,682
Speak English "very well" 10,769
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 7,913
Mon-Khmer, Cambodian 22,581
Speak English "very well" 11,850
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 10,731
Hmong 1,124
Speak English "very well" 428
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 696
Thai 3,767
Speak English "very well" 1,297
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,470
Laotian 1,575
Speak English "very well" 714
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 861
Vietnamese 37,688
Speak English "very well" 16,099
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 21,589
Other Asian Languages 28,979
Speak English "very well" 22,327
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 6,652
Tagalog 8,085
Speak English "very well" 5,174
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 2,911
Other Pacific Island Languages 2,706
Speak English "very well" 2,191
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 515
Navajo 7
Speak English "very well" 7
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) N
Other Native North American Languages 1,122
Speak English "very well" 1,073
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 49
Hungarian 853
Speak English "very well" 808
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 45
Arabic 32,221
Speak English "very well" 18,139
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 14,082
Hebrew 6,521
Speak English "very well" 5,507
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 1,014
African Languages 42,371
Speak English "very well" 28,911
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 13,460
Other and Unspecified Languages 1,128
Speak English "very well" 840
Speak English less than “very well” (LEP) 288
%
Field 306 100%
Field 307 77.6%
Field 308 22.4%
Field 310 100%
Field 310 58.6%
Field 310 41.4%
Field 313 100%
Field 314 85.1%
Field 315 14.9%
Field 316 100%
Field 316 55.4%
Field 316 44.6%
Field 319 100%
Field 319 72.4%
Field 319 27.6%
Field 322 100%
Field 322 54.4%
Field 322 45.6%
Field 325 100%
Field 325 87.9%
Field 325 12.1%
Field 328 100%
Field 328 87.4%
Field 328 12.6%
Field 331 100%
Field 331 88.1%
Field 331 11.9%
Field 334 100%
Field 334 94.7%
Field 334 5.3%
Field 337 100%
Field 337 73.2%
Field 337 26.8%
Field 340 100%
Field 340 61.2%
Field 340 38.8%
Field 343 100%
Field 343 62.7%
Field 343 37.3%
Field 346 100%
Field 346 74.1%
Field 346 25.9%
Field 349 100%
Field 349 67.7%
Field 349 32.3%
Field 352 100%
Field 352 77.5%
Field 352 22.5%
Field 355 100%
Field 355 65.4%
Field 355 34.6%
Field 358 100%
Field 358 70.2%
Field 358 29.8%
Field 361 100%
Field 361 82.4%
Field 361 17.6%
Field 364 100%
Field 364 83.0%
Field 364 17.0%
Field 367 100%
Field 367 53.0%
Field 367 47.0%
Field 370 100%
Field 370 57.0%
Field 370 43.0%
Field 373 100%
Field 373 50.0%
Field 373 50.0%
Field 376 100%
Field 376 61.9%
Field 376 38.1%
Field 379 100%
Field 379 57.6%
Field 379 42.4%
Field 382 100%
Field 382 52.5%
Field 382 47.5%
Field 385 100%
Field 385 38.1%
Field 385 61.9%
Field 388 100%
Field 388 34.4%
Field 388 65.6%
Field 391 100%
Field 391 45.3%
Field 391 54.7%
Field 394 100%
Field 394 42.7%
Field 394 57.3%
Field 397 100%
Field 397 77.0%
Field 397 23.0%
Field 400 100%
Field 400 64.0%
Field 400 36.0%
Field 403 100%
Field 403 81.0%
Field 403 19.0%
Field 406 100%
Field 406 100.0%
Field 406 N
Field 409 100%
Field 409 95.6%
Field 409 4.4%
Field 412 100%
Field 412 94.7%
Field 412 5.3%
Field 415 100%
Field 415 56.3%
Field 415 43.7%
Field 418 100%
Field 418 84.5%
Field 418 15.5%
Field 421 100%
Field 421 68.2%
Field 421 31.8%
Field 424 100%
Field 424 74.5%
Field 424 25.5%
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Educational Attainment

Note: The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English "not at all," "not well," or "well" on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English "very well" are considered proficient in English.

Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 898,587
Less than high school diploma 22.2%
High school diploma or GED 24.7%
Some college or associate's degree 17.6%
Bachelor's degree 16.8%
Graduate or professional degree 18.8%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 42.8%
Bachelor's degree or higher 17.2%
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2013 1.6%
% change: 1990-2000 2.5%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2013 69.1%
% change: 1990-2000 89.0%
Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status (foreign-born adults, age 25 and older)

Note: 1) Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, South Dakota, Vermont, and West Virginia are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2011-2013 American Community Survey (ACS), and Montana, North Dakota, and Wyoming data are from pooled 2009-2013 ACS. Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2013 ACS. 2) The letter N Indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.

 
Naturalized citizens (%) 499,927
Less than high school diploma 19.2%
High school diploma or GED 24.7%
Some college or associate's degree 20.6%
Bachelor's degree 17.7%
Graduate or professional degree 17.8%
Noncitizens (%) 398,660
Less than high school diploma 25.9%
High school diploma or GED 24.7%
Some college or associate's degree 13.8%
Bachelor's degree 15.7%
Graduate or professional degree 20%
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 3,706,208
Less than high school diploma 7.2%
High school diploma or GED 26.2%
Some college or associate's degree 25.2%
Bachelor's degree 23.9%
Graduate or professional degree 17.5%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Nothing  
Nothing  
Educational Attainment: Change over Time  
Adults with no high school diploma  
% change: 2000-2011 -41.8%
% change: 1990-2000 -24.1%
Adults with a bachelor's degree or higher  
% change: 2000-2011 25.1%
% change: 1990-2000 25.7%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 622,757
Less than high school diploma 31.5%
High school diploma or GED 21.2%
Some college or associate's degree 16.9%
Bachelor's degree 15.0%
Graduate or professional degree 15.4%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 30.0%
Bachelor's degree or higher 13.4%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 3,653,889
Less than high school diploma 12.5%
High school diploma or GED 28.2%
Some college or associate's degree 25.7%
Bachelor's degree 20.2%
Graduate or professional degree 13.3%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Foreign Born
Population (age 25 and older) 464,366
Less than high school diploma 41.2%
High school diploma or GED 21.9%
Some college or associate's degree 15.4%
Bachelor's degree 10.8%
Graduate or professional degree 10.8%
% Foreign Born among Adults with  
Less than high school diploma 24.1%
Bachelor's degree or higher 9.3%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
U.S. Born
Population (age 25 and older) 3,498,325
Less than high school diploma 17.2%
High school diploma or GED 30.8%
Some college or associate's degree 24.1%
Bachelor's degree 17.4%
Graduate or professional degree 10.5%
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   

Sources: Migration Policy Institute tabulations of the U.S. Bureau of the Census’ American Community Survey (ACS) and Decennial Census. Unless stated otherwise, 2013 data are from the one-year ACS file. For information about ACS definitions, methodology, sampling error, and nonsampling error, click here. Estimates from the 1990 and 2000 Decennial Census data as well as ACS microdata are from Steven Ruggles, Matthew Sobek, Trent Alexander, Catherine A. Fitch, Ronald Goeken, Patricia Kelly Hall, Miriam King, and Chad Ronnander, "Integrated Public Use Microdata Series: Version 4.0" (Machine-readable database, Minnesota Population Center [producer and distributor], 2011).

Definitions

  • The term "foreign born" refers to people residing in the United States at the time of the population survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent immigrants (or green-card holders), refugees and asylees, certain legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or some other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.
  • The term "U.S. born" refers to people residing in the United States who were U.S. citizens in one of three categories: people born in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia; people born in U.S. Insular Areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam; or people who were born abroad to at least one U.S. citizen parent.
  • The term limited English proficient (LEP) refers to any person age 5 and older who reported speaking English “not at all,” “not well,” or “well” on their survey questionnaire. Persons who speak only English or who report speaking English “very well” are considered proficient in English.

Data-related notes

  • The letter N Indicates that a number could not be provided by the Census Bureau because the number of sample cases was too small for this state.​
  • For “English proficiency of the foreign born by U.S. citizenship status” and “Educational Attainment by U.S. Citizenship Status”: Data for Alaska, Maine, Mississippi, South Dakota, Vermont, and West Virginia are from the U.S. Census Bureau's pooled 2011-2013 American Community Survey (ACS), and Montana, North Dakota, and Wyoming data are from pooled 2009-2013 ACS. Data for the United States overall and for the remaining states are from the 2013 ACS.